Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic bacterial disease. Having a high index of suspicion in all dogs with potentially consistent clinical signs is essential to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmission. Haemolytic anaemia is reported with leptospirosis in sheep and cattle and occasionally in humans, but is not common in canine leptospirosis. This report describes the case of a 10-year-old male neutered small Terrier cross living in an urban environment, which presented with severe anaemia, icterus and a hepatic mass. He was diagnosed with leptospirosis and immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) presumed secondary to the leptospirosis. Leptospirosis should be considered a potential differential diagnosis in canine cases of IMHA, particularly if signs of renal or hepatic disease are present. Appropriate handling precautions are recommended in such cases to avoid disease transmission to veterinary staff, dog owners and other dogs until test results for leptospirosis are available.
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