A six-year-old female neutered Löwchen with a clinical history of ovariohysterectomy following open pyometra was referred for evaluation of severe progressive generalised lameness in all four limbs, of varying degrees of severity and pyrexia that developed over the two weeks following surgery. Physical examination revealed enlarged superficial cervical lymph nodes, pain on deep palpation of both humeri and a grade I/VI cardiac murmur. Radiographs demonstrated irregular solid periosteal new bone involving the diaphyses of the humeri, femora and several ribs. Serum biochemistry showed mildly decreased urea levels and mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase. Haematology revealed mild thrombocytosis. A preliminary diagnosis of osteomyelitis was made. Biopsies of the bone lesions were taken, and bacteriological cultures with susceptibility testing confirmed a diagnosis of Escherichia coli. Following six weeks of medical treatment with meloxicam, tramadol and marbofloxacin, the clinical signs resolved and follow-up radiographs obtained 12 weeks from initial presentation supported the resolution of the clinical signs. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of haematogenous osteomyelitis presumably spreading from the uterus, involving multiple bones and leading to complete resolution with medical treatment.
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