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Rabbits: unilateral perineal-urinary bladder hernia in a high-grade cachectic intact female domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
  1. Benjamin Andreas Berk1,2,
  2. Anja Böttcher3,
  3. Sandra Nagel4 and
  4. Katerina Pia Günter5
  1. 1 Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK
  2. 2 Tierarztpraxis Strassenheim, Mannheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  3. 3 Tierarztpraxis Rossmann, Berlin-Alt Marzahn, Germany
  4. 4 Fachtierarztpraxis am Sandpfad, Wiesloch, Germany
  5. 5 The Biolog Section, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to Dr Benjamin Andreas Berk; bberk{at}, benjamin.berk{at}


A six-year-old intactfemale domestic dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented with an onset of persistent lethargy, inappetence, decreased urination and subcutaneous, fluctuating swelling at the left side of the anal orifice. Physical examination confirmed high-grade cachexia, general muscular atrophy and perineal repositionable swelling. Reposition was associated with spontaneous urination. Rectal examination revealed dilated pelvic muscles. Radiographs demonstrated an approximately 4×5×3 cm structure of soft tissue opacity with radiopaque content. Needle aspiration exposed cream-coloured fluid identified as urine by cytology and refractometer. In summary, all clinical findings supported the diagnosis of a bladder herniation through the pelvic muscle into the perineal region. The proposed pathogenesis might be persistent inappetence that resulted in high-grade cachexia and generalised muscle atrophy, followed by prolapse of the bladder. This is the second published report describing unilateral perineal herniation and incarceration of the bladder in an intactfemale rabbit.

  • Rabbits
  • Small animals
  • Surgery
  • Medicines
  • Received December 19, 2016.
  • Revision received May 15, 2017.
  • Accepted May 17, 2017.

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  • Received December 19, 2016.
  • Revision received May 15, 2017.
  • Accepted May 17, 2017.
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  • Contributors The described case was in charge of BAB (previously an intern at the Tierklinik am Sandpfad). SN supported BAB in the diagnostic procedures and planning. AB and KPG gave valuable input on examination, diagnosis, treatment and bioecological aspects. BAB wrote the article with valuable input from SN, AB and KPG. The article was reviewed and finalised by all authors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

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