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Mammals (other)
Tetralogy of Fallot in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra)


A 3.5-month-old male 1.4 kg red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was evaluated following auscultation of a grade IV/VI systolic cardiac murmur during routine neonatal examination. Echocardiography revealed a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD), overriding (dextropositioned) aorta, right ventricular concentric hypertrophy and moderate pulmonic valve stenosis. There was right-to-left blood flow through the VSD. These findings are consistent with a tetralogy of Fallot with right-to-left shunting. Despite the poor prognosis associated with this disease, this patient has done relatively well for six years. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first published report of a tetralogy of Fallot in any lemur species.

  • tetralogy of fallot
  • prosimian
  • red-ruffed lemur
  • congenital heart disease

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  • Contributors JAE and JKW contributed to the case evaluation, management, and analysis of data for the case presented. AEJ and RTO'B contributed to analysis of echocardiogram data. All authors contributed to revising the work critically for important intellectual content and gave final approval of the version submitted. All authors additionally agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work by ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available for this paper.

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