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Acute kidney injury in three dogs after ingestion of a descaling agent containing maleic acid


Maleic acid (MA) is a common component of descaling products and is widely used in daily life. Accidental ingestion in relevant amounts does not play a major role in human beings; however, it seems to be highly toxic for dogs. It has been commonly used experimentally to induce Fanconi syndrome in dogs or small rodents. Two dogs were presented for acute kidney injury (AKI) after accidental ingestion of a descaling agent containing MA at an estimated amount of 70 mg/kg each. The third dog involved was euthanased by the referring veterinarian, and postmortem pathological analysis revealed severe acute tubular necrosis consistent with toxic nephropathy. The other dogs received symptomatic therapy for AKI including treatment with haemodialysis and showed complete normalisation of serum creatinine at a follow-up after five months. Renal damage can be very severe, but seems to be at least partially reversible and an attempt to treatment is warranted.

  • Nephrology
  • Toxicology
  • Dogs
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