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Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia characterised by dystonia in a crossbred dog
  1. Koen Maurits Santifort1 and
  2. Mark Lowrie2
  1. 1Veterinair Verwijscentrum de Pietersberg, Oosterbeek, The Netherlands
  2. 2Dovecote Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK
  1. Correspondence to Koen Maurits Santifort; koensantifort{at}


A nine-year-old female neutered crossbred dog was presented with episodic seizures since the age of six months, which were unsatisfactorily controlled with phenobarbital administration. Upon further consultation and examination there was considerable doubt as to whether or not the seizures were epileptic in nature. One major argument against epileptic seizure activity was that the dog was (seemingly) fully conscious during these ‘attacks’. A video of an episode was made some time after forming a presumptive diagnosis of a paroxysmal movement disorder, showing dystonia and no signs of impaired consciousness. After initiation of a gluten-free diet, the dog had recurrent episodes of dystonia following consumption of pieces of bread. No events were noticed aside from those instances. A movement disorder, specifically a paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia characterised by dystonia, was presumptively diagnosed. This is the first report of a crossbred dog with this type of movement disorder.

  • paroxysmal dyskinesia
  • movement disorder
  • differential for epileptic seizures
  • classification
  • crossbreed
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  • Contributors KMS: case and first written version of manuscript. ML: review, corrections and input for discussion.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement All data are shared in the article and supplements.

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