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Mammary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with widespread metastasis in an adult dog
  1. Lobna Dagher1,
  2. Anibal G Armién2,
  3. James Dundas3 and
  4. Michelle M Dennis1
  1. 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis
  2. 2University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis
  1. Correspondence to Dr Michelle M Dennis; MiDennis{at}


A 10-year-old female mixed-breed dog presented for acute dyspnoea developing nine months after multiple mammary tumours were identified. The dog was euthanased and postmortem examination revealed widespread embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the myotubular variant involving the largest mammary tumour, the spleen, kidney, liver, lung and heart. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of desmin and the electron microscopic demonstration of cytoplasmic myofilaments with early sarcomere differentiation and rudimentary z-lines within tumour cells. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first comprehensive case description of the myotubular variant of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the dog. This case is also unusual due to the involvement of mammary gland, the old age of the dog at the time of diagnosis and the confirmation of metastasis in a dog diagnosed after two years of age.

  • immunodiagnosis
  • neoplasia
  • muscle disorders
  • histopathology
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  • Contributors MMD, the guarantor of this manuscript, led the pathological investigation reported herein, while the clinical investigation was led by JD, and the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination by AGA. LD assisted with the pathological investigation and drafted this report, whereas all other authors contributed to its revision.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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