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Boxelder tree (Acer negundo) intoxication in fallow deer (Dama dama) and Dutch Landrace goats (Capra aegagrus hircus)
  1. Jan Herman Bos1,
  2. Marja JL Kik2,
  3. Johannes H van der Kolk3 and
  4. Jooske IJzer2
  1. 1Department of Animal, Ouwehand Zoo, Rhenen, The Netherlands
  2. 2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  3. 3Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, Swiss Institute for Equine Medicine (ISME), University of Bern and Agroscope, Bern, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jooske IJzer; J.Ijzer{at}


Within 10 days of ingesting boxelder tree (Acer negundo) cuttings, seven fallow deer (Dama dama) died (n=2) or were euthanased (n=5) after showing signs of colic, anorexia and severe depression. Another fallow deer and two Dutch Landrace goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) simultaneously displayed colic signs but survived. Therapy included intramuscular flunixine meglumine. Postmortem investigation revealed subacute renal tubular necrosis and extensive lung oedema in all animals, and three deer had liver degeneration. The combination of clinical history and postmortem findings lead to the presumptive diagnosis of maple leaf intoxication as described in equids. This is the first report of likely boxelder tree (A negundo) intoxication in animals and the first report of maple leaf intoxication in fallow deer and goats.

  • Kidneys
  • Zoo Animals
  • Toxicology
  • Pathology
  • Nutrition
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  • Contributors All authors have taken part in conception and design of the article and approved of the submitted version. JHB acted as treating veterinarian and acquisited the clinical data. MJLK and JIJ performed pathological investigation, JHvdK attributed to the acquisition of urine and blood analyses.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Raw data are accessible via the corresponding author.

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