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Anaesthetising a cat with tetralogy of Fallot for non-cardiac surgery
  1. Vuokko Pekkola1,
  2. Christina Braun2 and
  3. Maria Paula Larenza Menzies2
  1. 1 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2 Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria
  1. Correspondence to Dr Vuokko Pekkola; vuokko.pekkola{at}


Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is a rare congenital cardiac disease, which has been described in many species, including cats. It often causes cyanosis due to deoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation. The prognosis of uncorrected ToF is generally poor, but some individuals with mild forms of the disease can survive beyond three years of age. A cat with mild, asymptomatic ToF was anaesthetised for elective ovariectomy. The cat was premedicated intramuscularly with methadone and alfaxalone. Anaesthesia was induced with alfaxalone and midazolam and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen using mechanical ventilation. Intraoperative analgesia was provided with a constant rate infusion of fentanyl and local anaesthesia. Phenylephrine was infused during anaesthesia to maintain adequate systemic vascular resistance. Mild bradycardia during ovarian tissue handling was treated successfully with atropine. Meloxicam and buprenorphine were used to provide postoperative analgesia. The cat did not experience major complications during anaesthesia and made a full recovery.

  • cats
  • anaesthesia
  • congenital heart disease
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  • Contributors VP was involved with planning the anaesthesia and executed the anesthesia and drafted the manuscript. CB was highly involved with critical revision of the manuscript. MPLM was involved with planning the anesthesia and critical revision of the manuscript. All of the authors have approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data is available.

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