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Calf with congenital lateralised nostrils and maxillary hypoplasia
  1. Emmie Giessen,
  2. Lianne van den Brink,
  3. Maxine Lourenburg,
  4. Talitha Spanjersberg and
  5. Peter Hut
  1. Department of Farm Animal Health, Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Peter Hut; p.r.hut{at}


This case report describes an 18-day-old female Holstein-Friesian calf with congenital symmetrical lateralised nostrils and maxillary hypoplasia. The calf had problems with the uptake of solid food and had an inspiratory and expiratory stridor. Further investigation showed that there was no palatoschisis, but a 1–2-mm open duct was found in the rostral part of the hard palate. The cranial part of the hard palate made a 90° angle with the caudal part and was therefore shaped like a T. Since around day 34 of gestation the nose placodes normally fuse, an error most likely occurred in close approximation of this date, causing the facial anomaly of the calf. A congenital defect can have a genetic, infectious and/or an environmental cause. Further research is necessary to examine the anatomic structures involved, functional consequences and possible causes for this congenital abnormality.

  • anatomy
  • calves
  • genetics
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  • Contributors All authors were involved in writing this case report and reviewed this case report for publication.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

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