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Calf with congenital lateralised nostrils and maxillary hypoplasia


This case report describes an 18-day-old female Holstein-Friesian calf with congenital symmetrical lateralised nostrils and maxillary hypoplasia. The calf had problems with the uptake of solid food and had an inspiratory and expiratory stridor. Further investigation showed that there was no palatoschisis, but a 1–2-mm open duct was found in the rostral part of the hard palate. The cranial part of the hard palate made a 90° angle with the caudal part and was therefore shaped like a T. Since around day 34 of gestation the nose placodes normally fuse, an error most likely occurred in close approximation of this date, causing the facial anomaly of the calf. A congenital defect can have a genetic, infectious and/or an environmental cause. Further research is necessary to examine the anatomic structures involved, functional consequences and possible causes for this congenital abnormality.

  • anatomy
  • calves
  • genetics
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