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Mammals (other)
Pulmonary actinomycosis and hypertrophic osteopathy in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)
  1. Patricia Edith Kunze1,
  2. Carlos R Sanchez2,
  3. Ashley Pich3,
  4. Stuart Aronson4 and
  5. Sophie Dennison5
  1. 1 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  2. 2 Veterinary Medical Center, Living Collection Unit, Oregon Zoo, Portland, Oregon, USA
  3. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  4. 4 Radiology Associates of North Texas, PA, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
  5. 5 MIRA! Animal Diagnostic Imaging and Teaching Consultancy, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Carlos R Sanchez; crs0403{at}


A five-year-old red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with bilateral, firm thickening of the radius, ulna and metatarsal bones with local tissue hyperthermia. Radiographs revealed a soft tissue opacity left intrathoracic mass lying cranial to the heart, and extensive areas of smooth to palisading periosteal reaction along radius, ulna and metatarsus bilaterally. Culture of an aspirate from the mass yielded Actinomyces species. Treatment consisting of injectable penicillin and oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meloxicam and tramadol was implemented for nine months. While receiving antibiotic therapy, the animal’s clinical condition improved, however, clinical signs returned after antibiotics were discontinued. Keeping it on daily medications indefinitely was considered neither practical nor safe for the staff and highly stressful for the animal. The kangaroo was euthanased one year and two months after initial diagnosis. Gross necropsy and histological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycotic abscessation with hypertrophic osteopathy.

  • Macropus rufus
  • Actinomyces
  • pulmonary actinomycosis
  • hypertrophic osteopathy
  • Actinomyces denticolens
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  • Contributors Conceptualisation: CRS, PEK. Case management: CRS, PEK, AP. Investigation: CRS, PEK. Visualisation: CRS, PEK. Writing–original draft preparation: PEK, CRS, SD, AP, SA. Writing–review and editing: PEK, CRS, SD, SA.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

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