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Opioid-free anaesthesia (OFA) in a springer spaniel sustaining a lateral humeral condylar fracture undergoing surgical repair
  1. Alexander Thomas Geddes1,
  2. Thaleia Stathopoulou2,
  3. Jaime Viscasillas2 and
  4. Pilar Lafuente2
  1. 1 Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  2. 2 Clinical Sciences and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alexander Thomas Geddes; geddes2{at}


A two-year, three-month-old male entire springer spaniel presented for right thoracic limb lameness. Radiographs of both elbows revealed a right lateral humeral condylar fracture. Local anaesthesia using bupivacaine was supplied to the site using a continuous stay peri-neural catheter at the brachial plexus. The fracture was stabilised using a lag screw and locking compression plate (LCP) plate. No response to surgical stimulation was noted on the patient’s vital parameters during anaesthesia, systemic analgesia was deemed not to be required. Bupivacaine was administered through the brachial plexus catheter every seven hours postoperatively. Pain scores were noted to be low, hence no systemic opioids were provided. The use of a continuous peripheral nerve block allowed for cold packs and passive range of motion exercises the same day of surgery. It also allowed for a lack of requirement of systemic opioids for the duration of hospitalisation.

  • anaesthesia
  • analgesia
  • pain
  • dogs
  • surgery
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  • Contributors ATG: design, composition of case report and anaesthesia clinical case assistance. JV: anaesthesia clinical case management, design planning of report, composition of technical anaesthesia components and critical review of composition. PL: surgery clinical case management, design planning of report, composition of technical surgery components and critical review of composition. TS: anaesthesia clinical case management and critical review of composition.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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