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Rhinitis following intraoperative gastro-oesophageal reflux in a dog
  1. Eugenia Flouraki1,
  2. George Kazakos2,
  3. Ioannis Savvas3,
  4. Dimitra Pardali4 and
  5. Katerina Adamama-Moraitou2
  1. 1Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
  2. 2Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  3. 3Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Thessaloniki, Greece
  4. 4Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  1. Correspondence to Eugenia Flouraki; eflouraki{at}


A four-month-old, male dog underwent surgical repair of femoral and pelvic fracture. The dog was premedicated with acepromazine combined with morphine; anaesthesia was induced with propofol to effect and maintained with isoflurane in 100 per cent oxygen. One hour after induction the dog regurgitated and gastric contents emerged through the nares. At the end of the surgery rhinoscopy and oesophagoscopy were performed. The oesophageal mucosa was apparently normal, while posterior and retrograde rhinoscopy revealed diffused hyperaemia and oedema of the nasal cavity and nasopharyngeal mucosa; food particles and moderate amount of mucous exudates were also seen. Copious lavage was performed, and administration of antibiotics, metoclopramide, cimetidine and sucralfate was initiated. Nasal mucosa was re-evaluated four days later. No abnormalities were detected in both nasal cavities and nasopharynx. The development of rhinitis following regurgitation during anaesthesia should be considered as a possible complication.

  • gastroesophageal reflux
  • regurgitation
  • rhinitis
  • anesthesia
  • dog
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  • Contributors All authors have contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and final approval of the version published.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data available.

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