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Delayed forebrain syndrome due to presumptive traumatic intranasal meningoencephalocele in a cat
  1. Theophanes Liatis1,
  2. Alberta De Stefani2,
  3. Panagiotis Mantis3 and
  4. Giunio Bruto Cherubini1
  1. 1Neurology & Neurosurgery Service, Dick White Referrals, Six Mile Bottom, United Kingdom
  2. 2Queen Mother Hospital for Small Animals, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom
  3. 3Diagnostic Imaging Service, Dick White Referrals, Six Mile Bottom, United Kingdom
  1. Correspondence to Dr Theophanes Liatis; theofanis.liatis{at}


A 3-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred with 1-month history of three generalised tonic-clonic epileptic seizures and left-sided thoracic limb knuckling. Nine months previously, the cat was bitten on the right upper palpebral region without manifesting neurological signs. On admission, physical and neurological examination revealed left-sided postural reaction deficits and absent menace response. Thus, a right-forebrain neurolocalisation was reached. Haematology, biochemistry, bile acid stimulation test, infectious diseases serology and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were unremarkable. Cerebral MRI revealed extension of brain and meninges into the right frontal sinus. Final diagnosis of a right-sided traumatic frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele was made. The cat remained seizure free under phenobarbital treatment with residual left-sided postural reaction deficits at 9 months follow-up. This is the first report of presumptive traumatic meningoencephalocele in a cat, which emphasises the importance of complete neurological investigation and regular long-term follow-up checks in patients with historical head trauma despite the absence of initial neurological signs.

  • head trauma
  • intranasal meningoencephalocele
  • post-traumatic epilepsy
  • delayed seizures
  • feline trauma
  • encephalomalacia
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  • Presented as a poster presentation at the 62nd BSAVA Congress on April 2019 in Birmingham (UK)

  • Contributors TL wrote the article and was the clinical responsible of the case. ADS and GBC were the clinical supervisors of the case. PM performed and reviewed the diagnostic imaging. All authors contributed in editing and reviewed the article.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article

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