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Effectiveness of the anaesthetic combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine and xylazine for the sterilisation of street dogs in field clinics
  1. Jami Landry1,2 and
  2. Paul Maza1,3
  1. 1FARVets International Inc, Freeville, New York, USA
  2. 2Newburgh Veterinary Hospital, Newburgh, New York, USA
  3. 3Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Paul Maza; psm26{at}


15 dogs presented to a sterilisation clinic in March 2017 for ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries. All patients were initially injected with an anaesthetic combination of Telazol (tiletamine/zolazepam), ketamine and xylazine (TKX) intramuscularly, followed by venous catheterisation and a number of follow-up intravenous boluses of TKX when appropriate to maintain a surgical anaesthesia. 6 dogs required redosing of the TKX drug combination. Data of monitoring anaesthesia via heart rate, respiratory rate, jaw tone, limb and muscle movement were collected. These data were used to determine timing for additional intravenous half doses of TKX for the maintenance of anaesthesia. All surgeries were successful without complications, and the anaesthetic protocol was effective at maintaining surgical anaesthesia. This case report describes a group of patients in which TKX was used as the anaesthetic protocol, with details on this previously unreported protocol such that others may be able to consider using TKX in future dog sterilisation clinics.

  • anesthesia
  • dogs
  • surgery
  • sterilization
  • field medicine

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  • Contributors JL and PM have both contributed to the planning, conduct and reporting of the work described in this article. CA and NA contributed to data collection.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

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