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Rodents and lagomorphs
Medical management of a unilateral obstructive ureterolith in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
  1. Emma Keeble,
  2. Kevin Eatwell,
  3. Maurizio Longo and
  4. Tobias Schwarz
  1. Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Edinburgh University, Roslin, Midlothian, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Emma Keeble; emma.keeble{at}


A 5-year-old neutered male French lop rabbit presented with a 6-hour history of stranguria and reduced faecal output. Routine haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis and diagnostic imaging were performed. Ultrasonography revealed left renal pelvis and ureter distension due to the presence of a proximal and distal calculus and marked heterogenous bladder sediment. A diagnosis of left hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction with a suspected underlying pyelonephritis and hypercalciuria was made. The rabbit was treated medically with intravenous fluid therapy, prokinetic drugs, analgesia, systemic antibiotics and nutritional support, as well as closely monitored by ultrasonographic examination. Three days later, clinical signs and urinary tract findings had resolved. Repeat imaging at 7 days post-treatment was normal. This is the first report of successful medical management of obstructive ureterolithiasis in a pet rabbit. The small ureteral diameter in rabbits and consequent surgical limitations make medical therapy with close serial ultrasonographic monitoring an alternative option to surgical intervention in select cases that are evaluated as stable. Surgical intervention, however, should always be considered in cases that do not respond to medical therapy.

  • calculus
  • hypercalciuria
  • pyelonephritis
  • stranguria
  • ultrasonography
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  • Contributors All authors have been actively involved in the design, drafting, revision and final approval of this case report.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

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