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Treatment of abdominal granuloma and hypercalcaemia caused by Cladophialophora bantiana with combination antifungal chemotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a dog
  1. Mary Lester1,
  2. Stuart Walton1,
  3. Federico Vilaplana Grosso1 and
  4. Justin Shmalberg2
  1. 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  2. 2Department of Comparative, Diagnostic and Population Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Stuart Walton; stuartawalton{at}


A 5-year-old intact male Boxer was evaluated for a 4-month history of ventral abdominal mass with fistulous tracts. Thoracic and abdominal CT revealed a large soft-tissue mass in the rectus abdominis muscle extending into the peritoneal cavity. Cytologic and histologic findings were consistent with an intra-abdominal fungal granuloma with pigmented fungal hyphae suggestive of phaeohyphomycosis. PCR of the isolated fungal organism confirmed Cladophialophora bantiana as the aetiologic agent. Initial therapy consisted of oral terbutaline and itraconazole and weekly to biweekly hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Intralesional amphotericin B was initiated following diagnosis. Therapy was associated with transient draining tract resolution though the mass remained overall static in size. Hypercalcaemia with associated increased serum calcitriol developed with progressive disease, which resolved in response to low-dose steroid therapy and a calcium-restricted and vitamin D-restricted diet. The dog was euthanised 13 months after initial presentation following the development of acute weakness, fever and dyspnoea.

  • </i>Cladophialophora bantiana<i>
  • amphotericin B
  • intralesional therapy
  • hyperbaric oxygen
  • hypercalcemia
  • granuloma
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  • Contributors All authors contributed to the preparation of this manuscript, with all authors providing critical feedback in shaping the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study is included in the article.

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